At night, European hares spend a third of their time foraging in small groups. Hares communicate with each other by a variety of … Females give birth in hollow depressions in the ground. In mainly grass farms their numbers are raised when there are improved pastures, some arable crops and patches of woodland. However, populations have been declining in mainland Europe since the 1960s, at least partly due to changes in farming practices. The hare has been hunted across Europe for centuries, with more than five million being shot each year; in Britain, it has traditionally been hunted by beagling and hare coursing, but these field sports are now illegal. It is however possible that restricted gene flow could reduce genetic diversity within populations that become isolated. They rely on high-speed endurance running to escape predation, having long, powerful limbs and large nostrils. "The Hare in Myth and Reality: A Review Article" as published in, International Union for Conservation of Nature, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T41280A45187424.en, "Cladogenesis of the European brown hare (, 10.2193/0022-541X(2005)069[0760:GSOPOE]2.0.CO;2, "Ecology of European brown hare and distribution of natural foci of Tularaemia in the Czech Republic", "Relationships between density of brown hare, "Natal dispersal of European hare in France", "Exploration forays in juvenile European hares (, "Predation of foxes on a hare population in central Poland", "Disease reveals the predator: sarcoptic mange, red fox predation and prey populations", "Parasitic infections of the European brown hare (, "Hares could be wiped out, experts warn, as mystery deaths spark fears RHD-2 has 'jumped' from rabbits", "Licensed to kill: the landowners who shoot thousands of brown hares", British Association for Shooting and Conservation, Hunting and shooting in the United Kingdom, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=European_hare&oldid=988148062, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 11 November 2020, at 11:24. Our site is great except that we donât support your browser. ... European hare - Lepus europaeus. They are not territorial and live in shared home ranges. Photographer. When hunting the European hare, the same basic concepts of rabbit hunting apply.  The hare is considered a pest in some areas; it is more likely to damage crops and young trees in winter when there are not enough alternative foodstuffs available.  In Australia, European hares were reported as being infected by four species of nematode, six of coccidian, several liver flukes and two canine tapeworms. The Brown Hare is closely related to the Rabbit. Description: The brown hare has very long black-tipped ears; large, long, powerful hind legs. Rarely, if the winter is too cold and there is a lot of snow hare can make tunnels in the snow, which can reach up to 2 meters in length and can make a nest in the hay also.  During daytime, a hare hides in a depression in the ground called a "form" where it is partially hidden. found a high degree of muscle membrane unsaturation in the European hare and linked this to the extraordinarily high maximum running speed of this species (more than 70 km/h ).  In Scotland concerns have been raised over the increasing numbers of hares shot under license. Naturally, the European Hare relies on this speed to escape potential predators. They require cover, such as hedges, ditches and permanent cover areas, because these habitats supply the varied diet they require, and are found at lower densities in large open fields. Download European hare Photos by linux87. The European hare's fur does not turn completely white in the winter, although the sides of the head and base of the ears become whitish and the hip and rump region may gain some grey. found a high degree of muscle membrane unsaturation in the European hare and linked this to the extraordinarily high maximum running speed of this species (more than 70 km/h ). Subscribe to Envato Elements for unlimited Photos downloads for a single monthly fee. Nevertheless, the distribution of food affects these benefits. The body mass is typically between 3 and 5 kg (6.6 and 11.0 lb). Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Hares are the most widespread lagomorph genus, occupying most of North America, Europe, Asia, and Africa. 3-5 kg. , In Europe, the hare has been a symbol of sex and fertility since at least Ancient Greece. They are very adaptable and may occur in mixed farmland. The European hare is listed as being of least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature because it has a wide range and is moderately abundant. Their range extends from northern Spain to southern Scandinavia, eastern Europe, and northern parts of Western and Central Asia. Currently, this species is classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List, however, its numbers today are decreasing. The European hare was first described in 1778 by German zoologist Peter Simon Pallas. Generally nocturnal and shy in nature, hares change their behaviour in the spring, when they can be seen in broad daylight chasing one another around in fields. They were also found to host rabbit fleas (Spilopsyllus cuniculi), stickfast fleas (Echidnophaga myrmecobii), lice (Haemodipsus setoni and H. lyriocephalus), and mites (Leporacarus gibbus). , In October 2018, it was reported that a mutated form of the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV2) may have jumped to hares in the UK. They also seem to be fewer in number in areas with high European rabbit populations, although there appears to be little interaction between the two species and no aggression. Naturally, the European Hare relies on this speed to escape potential predators. It has been speculated that in the Near East, hare populations are intergrading and experiencing gene flow. i Received for publication Apr. 7.  When a doe is ready to mate, she runs across the countryside, starting a chase that tests the stamina of the following males. The fur colour is grizzled yellow-brown on the back; rufous on the shoulders, legs, neck and throat; white on the underside and black on the tail and ear tips. Amazing Facts About the Brown Hare. Meanwhile, the subordinates can access the food while the dominants are distracted. It can only try to make an escape â the faster the better, of course. We're hunting hares on farmland in Lincolnshire with Eagle falconer Roy Lupton and his friends. Boyle responds that almost nothing is known about Ēostre, and that the authors had seemingly accepted the identification of Ēostre with the Norse goddess Freyja, but that the hare is not associated with Freyja either.  The hare's elongated ears range from 9.4 to 11.0 cm (3.7 to 4.3 in) from the notch to tip. European Hare - Lepus Europaeus Stock Image - Image of brown, mammal: 91308913. A diet of leverets will not be enough to sustain a growing pup or feed an entire wolf pack, so bigger prey is needed. Their eyes are set high on the sides of their head, and they have long ears and a flexible neck. The breeding season lasts from January to August. , Hares are primarily nocturnal and spend a third of their time foraging. The two hares decide to compete in a rabbit jumping contest to decide who gets the Bun, but European Hare starts talking about Mountain Hare's hair, surprising her. Agricultural and economic impacts. The Christian Church connected the hare with lustfulness and homosexuality, but also associated it with the persecution of the church because of the way it was commonly hunted. Subscribe and Download now! In European tradition, the hare also symbolises the two qualities of swiftness and timidity. This is the case in northern Spain and in Greece, where the restocking by hares brought from outside the region has been identified as a threat to regional gene pools. When food is well-spaced, all hares can eat safely but when food is clumped together then only dominant hares can access it. European hares are large fast-running mammals. their young are born blind and hairless. Most of the fastest animals are birds so our list below includes a selection of the fastest of all these different types of animals. The dental formula is 2/1, 0/0, 3/2, 3/3. Hares can run at 70 km/h (43 mph) and when confronted by predators they rely on outrunning them in the open.  Cereal crops are usually avoided when other more attractive foods are available, the species appearing to prefer high energy foodstuffs over crude fibre.  Observation of the hare's springtime mating behaviour led to the popular English idiom "mad as a March hare", with similar phrases from the sixteenth century writings of John Skelton and Sir Thomas More onwards. I am happy to be back on this forum. It is related to the similarly appearing rabbit, which is in the same family but a different genus. When challenging a conspecific, a hare thumps its front feet; the hind feet are used to warn others of a predator. March 1974. as cited in Speed of Animals. , In Northern Europe, Easter imagery often involves hares or rabbits. Brown Hare - Lepus europaeus Taxon: Lagomorpha Brown Hare Red List Classification: GB: N/A England: N/A Scotland: N/A Wales: N/A Global: Least Concern General fact sheet (click to download) Field sign fact sheet (click to download) Habitat: Grassland, arable land. There are several differences in the physical features of hares and rabbits that allow us to distinguish between the two. Minden Pictures/SuperStock. could never summon the extra burst of speed necessary to catch the hare. Compared to the European rabbit, food passes through the gut more rapidly in the hare, although digestion rates are similar. Their range extends from northern Spain to southern Scandinavia, eastern Europe, and northern parts of Western and Central Asia. The European brown hare (Lepus Capensis) is a respected game animal throughout most of Europe and parts of Russia. Photo about speed, mammal, lawn, wildlife, easter, game, ears, wild, fauna, sitting, outdoor, brown, nature, field - 161522730 Matings start before ovulation occurs and the first pregnancies of the year often result in a single foetus, with pregnancy failures being common. Peak reproductive activity occurs in March and April, when all females may be pregnant, the majority with three or more foetuses. European Hare on The IUCN Red List site -, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_hare, https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/41280/10430693.