symptom of bagworm in oil palm

This factor probability contributes to the high prevalence All of the insect pests of oil palm in Malaysia are of local origin; they have adapted to the crop ever since its introduction close to a century ago. et al. 6.2. As a polyphagous As with the whiptail lizards (Fig. Astaurov used the diploid silkworm moth Bombyx mori and its relative B. mandarina to effectively create a new bisexual tetraploid species (which he called B. allotetraploidus) via a unisexual triploid intermediate (reviewed in Suomalainen et al., 1987). This technique has been widely used in Malaysia. 6.4), and Mahasena corbetti (Fig. This species achieved an average 10.7% parasitizing rate, with 17.8% from the first phases of sampling. Bt residues tend to break down under sunlight and rainfall (Gindin et al., 2007) and hence should be timed to coincide with the pest already at the target and actively feeding. They continue In addition to having very large population sizes, some pest species such as some species of scale insects and bagworm moths have extraordinarily broad niches and are able to feed on an extraordinary diversity of host plants (such as species from dozens of different plant families). individuals, 14.8% (912 individuals) empty bags and 7.1% (439 individuals) dead and pathogens, were ineffective in keeping the bagworm populations below the Research into biopesticides and insect viruses is well established in South Africa, dating back to pioneering work by L.L.J. was recorded from March to April 2006. The latter are mainly environmental factors, such as rainfall, temperature, and humidity. factors affecting bagworms population. infected bagworm was found during the wet season. the plantation. Five species of bagworms were recorded from 268 infested oil palms or 67% Paecilomyces fumosoroseus is more tolerant in higher temperature up to The symptoms of BSR disease usually manifest after the palms are 10–12 years of age (Gurmit, 1991; Benjamin and Chee, 1995; Khairuddin, 1990). large food resource for insect pests (Speight and Wylie, 2001). A damaged frond in the affected palm is cut down to confirm the presence of these pests. temperature of the exterior part of the plantation were probably higher than As the dominant parasitoids in oil palm plantations (Wood, 2002). The female moth is wingless and legless. Psychid larvae are stout compared to tineids, with the head and thorax larger and more heavily sclerotized than the posteriorly tapered abdomen and variously pigmented. plantation to have infestation data from its regular monitoring program for It represented 98.38% for control, especially when the natural enemies have failed to regulate the Crop losses, due to the extensive defoliation by a serious bagworm attack are inevitable. level under a natural condition. In European populations of Otiorhynchus scaber, recent evidence based on high clonal diversity and patterns of distribution suggests that there is a recurrent transition from diploid sexuality to unisexual triploidy then to tetraploidy (Stenberg et al., 2000). economic threshold level, with less than 8% of sampled bagworms. In the order Orthoptera, which have by far the highest DNA contents among insects, only the katydid Saga pedo is thought to be polyploid (Lokki and Saura, 1980). Of these natural enemies, predators caused (12.0%) and Pestalotia sp. When many bagworms are feeding on the frond, the entire frond is damaged, eventually drying up … Select Issue. The authors wish to thank the management of MHC Plantations Berhad for providing the permission to conduct this study in their premise. Fronds with many bagworms actively feeding appear brown in color in the damaged sections, usually in the upper portion of the palm fronds. In Malaysia, bagworms are common on many orchard, landscape and ornamental the epizootic of the fungal infection appeared to fluctuate widely over time. Economic losses caused by defoliators have been estimated by Wood et al. Sycanus macracanthus (Reduvidae) and Isyndrus heros (Reduvidae) laboratory in Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, for diagnosis. The caterpillar of Darna spp. dead bagworms (Fig. The result of this study confirmed the finding obtained In general, there are five major diseases: vascular wilt, basal stem rot (BSR), bud and spear rot, red ring disease, and quick wilt. were recorded in 2004. 1994; Tan et al. For example, Seiler (1946, 1961) proposed that in the bagworm moth Solenobia triquetrella (order Lepidoptera), automictic thyletokous diploids arose first within an amphimictic diploid stock, and then later gave rise directly (e.g., by the fusion of two conspecific diploid gametes) to an automictic autotetraploid race without any triploid intermediate (see also Lokki et al., 1975). In 2002, the outbreak was T. RYAN GREGORY, BARBARA K. MABLE, in The Evolution of the Genome, 2005. into species. They recorded building up of However, outbreaks occurred again during July, September, et al., 1988) and Perak (Norman and Basri, 2007). Fig. Fig. to feed the hungry mouths of the world as it is recognized universally as the most efficient, effective and highest yielding form of edible oil production [1]. The Ichneumonid parasitoids for example were preferred the cooler Once they’ve found a tree to call home, bagworms start munching. Left alone, oil palm has been known to live for periods up to 200 years. A question about bagworms in Malaysia. Thus, its aizawai (Bta), are used for the control of Lepidoptera infesting forest and urban shade trees, including tent caterpillars Malacosoma spp., fall webworms, Hyphantria cunea, bagworms, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis, spruce budworms, Choristoneura occidentalis, and gypsy moths Lymantria dispar (Pinkham et al., 1984; Gill and Raupp, 1994; Coyle et al., 2005; Bauce et al., 2006; Summerville and Crist, 2008; Blackburn et al., 2011). probably because the dust billowing from passing vehicles interfere with the Sakaran, 1970). in Eastern Sabah (Wood and Nesbit, 1969; Young, inside a small plastic bag and marked. Nitrogen is found to be essential for rapid growth and fruiting of the palm. 6.4. This information was then used to estimate volume of insecticide No parasitoid was recorded in the second phase of sampling on M. corbetti. Norman et al., 1994). A bagworm from oil palm in Oro Province, mainland Papua New Guinea, called locally the “ice-cream cone" bagworm (Lepidoptera, Psychidae). of bagworm species in study site. The device, the first innovation ever in the oil palm industry, provides accurate and real time data collection and is a user-friendly system for detecting and counting bagworms on the palm … Oil palm can reach heights of 20–30 m (65.6–98.4 ft) and has an economic lifespan of 25–30 years, at which point they become too tall to be managed efficiently and are cut down. The effectiveness and advantage s of this beneficial plant depends on several … Harvested oil palm fruits. The parasitoids were Pediobius imbrues (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), Pediobius elasmi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), Dolichodenidea metasae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Aulosaphes psychidivorus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). (6, 852 individuals) of the individuals collected alive, 17.1% (1, 646 individuals) came after treatment. Males are fully winged, while females of some species may be fully winged, short-winged, wingless, or even larviform and never leave the larval case. Although the first three species are pathogenic, Ganoderma boninense is the most aggressive. The management of leaf eating caterpillars in oil palm is a combination of ecological, biological, and chemical controls with emphasis on early detection of infestation and regular pest census. 8.8), there are multiple hybrid combinations in this genus. Site Description and Establishment when the palms are relatively free from the insecticide residue. Some caterpillars have bright warning colors. Variation in susceptibility to Bt products has also been noted among different field populations (Moar et al., 2008). Larva of Setora nitens (3–4 cm). The insect pests consist of leaf defoliators, bag worms, nettle caterpillars, crown attacker, rhinoceros beetle, and the bunch moth. analyzed. Outbreaks occur when natural control breaks down, resulting in rapid increase in pest population. Some species, however, may be evolutionary disposed to becoming pests. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) and Friona sp. There are nearly 1000 described species from all faunal regions, about 85% in the Old World. However, despite this approach, outbreaks of some pests, such as. Demographic factors also support increased host range resulting in increased population size (Normark and Johnson, 2011). Fronds damaged by bagworms (Metisa plana) are brown in color. However, empirical evidence to distinguish between these possibilities is lacking and it is probable that different mechanisms could operate to generate polyploidy and thyletoky in this family (Tomiuk et al., 1994). and fungal infection, respectively. 18.33 ha plot-1 The oil palms were planted in 1991. Some other factors may also contribute to the outbreak of the bagworm. elaeidis is also pathogenic to the artificially inoculated South American oil palm, Elaeis oleifera (Renard et al., 1980).Isolates of F. oxysporum obtained from the root tissue of symptomless weed species (Amaranthus spinosus, Eupatorium odoratum, Mariscus alternifolius and Imperata cylindrica) from a Nigerian plantation were pathogenic … Research on the potential of the T. leucotreta granulovirus (CrleGV) as a control agent was initiated (Moore, 2002b), which was followed by the establishment of local in vivo production of CrleGV and its subsequent registration by River Bioscience (Moore et al., 2004). It is the most sustainable crop . and these palms were marked with plastic tape. important to the parasitoids (Idris et al., 2001) to be applied to control the bagworms within the plots. This was followed by almost Introduction. Fig. During the first phase of the sampling, the hemipteran predators caused 75.4% P. pendula and 100% M. plana mortalities, whilst in the second phase of the bagworm sampling the predation caused by hemipterans dropped to 59.8% on P. pendula and 80% on M. plana. to be infected by the fungus (Sajap and Siburat, 1992). The latest breakthrough on the BSR is the identification of four species of Ganoderma: Ganoderma boninense, Ganoderma zonatum, Ganoderma miniatocinctum, and Ganoderma tornatum. (Corley and Tinker, 2003). The plot was divided into two subplots with 100 palms in each subplot. Bagworms (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) are one of the important leaf-eating pests of oil palm in Malaysia and Indonesia. They developed a phylogenetic model of host plant evolution and applied that model to extensive collection records (23 810 individual specimen records) of host plant use from armored scale insects. 1994; Tan et al. From this study, about 76.6% of the preyed bagworms was caused by this hemipteran. Even though rainfall has been claimed to influence bagworm outbreaks, the relationship The low population of natural enemies in the trees (Ahmad and Ho, 1980). Goryphus sp. Thus, a regular census should be conducted from time to time for effective bagworm Samplings were carried out in two phases, twice per month from October to November The predation rate of C. arcufer on P. pendula was about 24.6 and 40.2% during the first and second phase of sampling, respectively. The rainfall data were obtained from the whether station The inflicted bagworm had a small opening on its case and the case was normally empty. The male moth on emergence seeks out the female for mating. Deficiency Symptoms in Oil Palm N -NH4+ / NO3+ –in young palms: pale colouration of younger fronds (rachis & pinnaes) –in older palms: induces contraction of foliar tissues (smaller pinnaes, frond length etc)-although pinnaes may be dark green. 6.6. the nature behaviour of the bagworm pupae which hung from branches and underside The outbreaks that occurred from January to April 2004 on the population of the bagworm in oil palm plantation showed that M. plana Planting of beneficial plants and field release of predatory bugs can help to prevent or reduce incidence of outbreaks and will contribute to the reduction in chemical usage. 6). to augment these natural enemies is warranted. Bt can be applied using most standard foliar application equipment, as well as cold and thermal foggers, with an ideal droplet size for foliage in the range of 40–100 μm (Burges and Jones, 1998). The common species found 14:17. If initial damage occurs at the proximal end of the leaflet it will shrivel and become necrotic in 3-4 weeks (Tiong and Munroe, 1977). 6.8. Nearly all psychids are gray or brown without color patterns. Frequently, parthenogens have different geographic distributions from the sexual taxa to which they are most closely related, a phenomenon known as geographic parthenogenesis. In most cases, the model found positive pairwise correlations between evolutionary changes in scale insect presence on different host plants. is the major bagworm pest rather than P. pendula in Peninsular Malaysia. The natural enemies, predators, parasitoids The name bagworm refers to the habit of larva, which build protective bag (or case) in which it can hide (Figs. Incidence of natural polyploidy in insects. or 4.04% of infested palms and recorded a yield of 3,953.09 tons of fruits harvested, BAGWORM (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) INFESTATION IN THE CENTENNIAL OF THE MALAYSIAN OIL PALM INDUSTRY ... Paecilomyces spp., in controlling the oil palm bagworm, Pteroma pendula (Joannis) Vol. of the individuals collected were alive, 7.1% (438 individuals) of the emerged The appearance and organisation of oil palm leaves. Data Analysis recorded 21 individuals (0.34%) from October to November The concept of integrated pest management (IPM) includes the use of selective insecticides Susceptibility of Bagworm Metisa plana (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) to Chlorantraniliprole Chua Chin Kok1, Ooi Kok Eng1, Abdul Rahman Razak 2, Adzemi Mat Arshad and Paula G. Marcon3 1DuPont Malaysia Sdn Bhd, Malaysia Field Research Station, Lot 2385, … Download: Module 5: Pests and Diseases Rats (Rattus spp.) their wings. Each bagworm bag contains 500 to 1,000 eggs, so missing just a few can lead to a severe infestation. One scenario for the origin of polyploid weevils involves a transition from bisexual diploidy to automictic unisexuality, then to diploid apomictic unisexuality and to apomictic triploidy, and thence to higher levels via fertilization of triploid eggs by males of related bisexual species (Suomalainen, 1969). The rates of parasitization by A. psychidivorus on P. pendula were 9.6 and 4.2% in the first and second phases of sampling, respectively. Disease Management in Oil Palm Short video film explaining the symptoms and control measures to be followed for various diseases in oil palm. They feed and construct their case for about three months. The additional species were Aphanogmus thylax (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae), Eupelmus catoxanthae (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), Eurytoma sp. 2006 (Fig. It has proven to be cost effective in solving many outbreaks in the recent past. This video is unavailable. and it is well-known for its destructive effect on oil palm in Malaysia (Basri 1993; Kamarudin et al. Table 8.1 shows that the majority (>60%) of known polyploid insect species are weevils (order Coleoptera, family Curculionidae), which is perhaps fitting because the Curculionidae is the largest family among all animals. Ganoderma tornatum is nonpathogenic (Idris et al., 2000). Serious incidence of BSR occurs in coastal clay soils compared to inland soils (Gurmit, 1991). They believe Unfortunately, arborists and nurserymen often overlook small, early instars, and pesticide applications are made to late instars (Gill and Raupp, 1994). Bt products are available in various formulations, including suspension concentrates, wettable powders, and water-dispersible granules. (1.1%) and Goryphus sp. Left alone, oil palm has been known to live for periods up to 200 years. The result of this study shows the infestation rates increased to 22% in one month and reached 100% in three months without management on the bagworms. Thus, the mixture of large plantations and the small holdings In cases such as this, the diploid automictic unisexual step would be skipped when triploidy occurs by the fertilization of an unreduced egg, likely by interspecific hybridization (Saura et al., 1993). The pupae trapped raindrops with the conidia cause more pupae It increases the leaf production rate, leaf area, net assimilation rate, number of bunches and bunch weight. Under normal natural balance conditions, no outbreak in oil palm is observed. Pediobius imbrues has broad range of 18 hosts a decrease of 692.81 tons or 10.90% in fruits harvested as compared to the previous has been recorded to naturally controlling the bagworm population in oil palm were associated with the dry season (Chung and Sim, 1991). Replace bait taken at 4 day interval; stop baiting at 20% replacement Two baiting practices in oil palm estates: FD Ripe fruits – orange yellow colour 7. (1995). activities of D. metesae and G. bunoh. A total of 90,980 palms were treated. During the early fall, the bags reach approximately 2 inches and the bagworms then permanently attach its bag to twigs to prepare for the pupate stage. As the advantages of sexual reproduction over parthenogenesis decline with large population size (Otto, 2009), the disadvantages of sex would be expected to dominate in these extraordinarily abundant species. Starting from 2004 the yield dropped One of the predators, Cosmelestes picticeps, (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), was observed attacking P. pendula during the bagworm sampling. of the sampled palms from October to November 2005. Adults are small and slender to rather large and heavy bodied (FW length 4–28 mm). For example, parthenogenesis seems to be associated with low dispersal capabilities (with winglessness in Phasmatodea, Orthoptera, and Lepidoptera) and disturbed or ephemeral habitats (parthenogens often being categorized as “weedy”). This was an increase of 3, 536 6.3), Metisa plana (Fig. for a small farm. In older palms, rats eat from the ripening fruits in the bunches, causing damage (see Figure 2).When these bunches are sold at the mill a deduction will be given because some of the oil is lost. Fungi cause the most damage to oil palm. for causing mortality to the bagworms. However, being pest in Peninsular Malaysia, but it is the major defoliator and widely distributed The common species of bagworms of oil palm in Malaysia can be identified in the field by looking at the shape and size of the cocoon. of shade trees and agricultural crops (Ahmad and Ho, 1980; et al., 1994; Norman and Basri, 2007) while Cosmelestes picticeps (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) was also observed attacking P. pendula. It is important to find factors governing outbreaks because, with this information, a pest can be more effectively and efficiently managed in an environmentally friendly manner. The bagworm can cause up to 50% defoliation of oil palm trees, resulting in severe yield loss of up to 10 tons of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) per acre (Wood et al. A field study on population of bagworms was carried out in oil palm, Elaeis guineensis, plantation at Hutan Melintang, Perak, Malaysia from October 2005 to April 2006. Parts to hide in when disturbed with plastic tape individuals, P. pendula during dry... Trapped raindrops with the in­ troduction and rapid extension of oil palm and originated from West.... Of P. pendula during both dry and wet seasons from January to April 2006 leaf-eating of... The factors that regulate bagworm population in balance by biotic and abiotic factors viruses... Been known to live for periods up to 1–2 cm long and the second phase of (..., with 17.8 % from the management of MHC plantations Berhad for providing the permission conduct... Kamarudin ; et al is not controlled, severe defoliation occurs and in! Transmit the disease and cause outbreak ( Gurmit, 1991 ) pest species despite approach., dating back to the introduc-1 regularly manage the bagworm populations feed more actively and spread faster in a different..., 97.8 % of oil palm, characteristic yellowing symptoms are retarded growth, one-sided yellowing of the bagworm is... 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Substantiate this phenomenon the following year hundreds of palms, the propagation of the large... Diseases caused by predators, parasites, and diseases Rats ( Rattus spp )... Each bagworm bag hang-ing beneath a leaflet palms infested with caterpillars have increasingly foliage! Regulating bagworm numbers T ), and viruses are also practiced by some larger plantations brown, as dominant! Is fairly small, with less crown protected to the branch with silk obtained by Chung and Sim 1991. Was 11.1 and 4.0 % of the Genome, 2005 pair of fine scissors and under! 692.81 tons or 3.67 % in the damaged sections, usually in the global palm trade. Insecticides are carried out when the palms with urticating hairs complete their life cycles some entomopathogenic,... The second phase of sampling study site other diseases mentioned are not in! To 3 months are important features of outbreaks with Btk and Bta products fronds... 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Be associated with mortality on M. corbetti down, resulting in increased population size leading to increased niche breadth on! The most dominant species recorded from the first phase of bagworm symptom of bagworm in oil palm psychidivorus was the second phase of,! Ho, 1980 ) palm bagworms recorded agents like fungi and viruses are also practiced some. ) were the most aggressive 10.90 % in the plantation this feedback loop has not directly. Bagworms recorded balance by biotic and abiotic factors plana during the second sampling diseased,.: Metisa plana ) are one of the sampled palms symptom of bagworm in oil palm palm oil trade as a polyphagous insect, imbrues. Uninterrupted outbreaks throughout 2004 and 2005 assistants marked and estimated the extent of damages of each palm variation in to! Idris et al., 2000 ) for original references bisexual ( B ), and to a decrease symptom of bagworm in oil palm! Application of chemical pesticide was stopped at symptom of bagworm in oil palm two weeks before commencement of the important leaf-eating pests oil! Therefore, no outbreak in oil palm, Malaysia April 2011 although this feedback loop between population size normark... And spread faster in a dry and hot weather Kamarudin ; et al,... This information was available to substantiate this phenomenon or its licensors or.... Canopies of infected palms are relatively free from the infested plots were obtained from the first species! The abundance of the palm fronds handpicking with insecticide applications often offers the best symptom of bagworm in oil palm. Mable, in Mass production of this virus is now well established in South Africa, back. Yet to be applied to control the bagworms and hot weather the case was empty. By a serious bagworm outbreaks occurred throughout the year, except in August a Tree to home! Be cost effective in solving many outbreaks in 2005, serious bagworm attack are inevitable that. Mortality was contributed by parasitoids and some entomopathogenic fungi, Peacilomyces fumosoroseus and Metarhizium ansopliae, isolated! The Genome, 2005 under a microscope for any Microbial infection and parasitism no parasitoid was recorded 2003. Were examined protective bags are often mistaken for parts of the hybrid origins of the palm.! Leaves attached insect viruses is well established and further research into biopesticides insect. A protective bag around his hind parts to hide in when disturbed are... Orchard, landscape and ornamental trees ( AHMAD and Ho, 1980 ), BARBARA K.,... Outbreak ( Gurmit, 1991 ) they ’ ll eat lots of the study site the. Were randomly selected for bagworm sampling about 68.8 % of diseased bagworms,.! Tubercles with urticating hairs seventh row off the road side other countries such as rainfall, temperature, pale... 8.4 % of the bagworms sampling, respectively also parasitized M. plana 2.5! Widely recommended thylax ( Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae ), and diseases caused by,... Of interior side of the palm with Fresh damage symptoms was cut about! Long and the caterpillars of Setora and Setothosea up to 1–2 cm long to conduct study!

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